GLOBALIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AT

LOCAL LEVEL

(A CASE STUDY OF MUNICIPAL LOCAL

GOVERNMENT AREA,

KANO STATE)

 

 

 

 

BY

 

 

SANI BALA SHEHU

PGS/SMS/06/0851

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BEING A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, BAYERO UNIVERSITY, KANO IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF PGDPPA POLITICAL SCIENCE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECEMBER /2007

 

APPROVAL PAGE

 

I certify that this project carried out by Sani Bala Shehu has been read and approved as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of PGDPPA. Political Science Dept.

 

 

Project Supervisor                                                                    

Mohammad Maazu Yusuf                            Date/Sign:…………………………

 

 

Head of Department

 Professor Kamilu Fagge.                              Date/Sign:…………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to my late father Gwani (professor) Alhaji Bala Mai Ishiriniyya, may his gentle soul rest in perfect peace, Amen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I wish to thank Almighty Allah for giving the strength, courage and guidance to pass through my academic career to this level. “All praise due to all those who contributed one way or the other in line with the achievement of this goal through out the efforts being put in the process.

A prayer for eternal bliss goes to my late dad Gwani (Professor) Alh. Bala Mai Ishiriniyya (May his soul rest in peace) and a sincere gratitude to my patient and supportive mother. My. Elder brother encouragement (Alhaji Garba Bala Sagagi) his family such as Halima Garba and furera Garba Bala and is hereby appreciated; therefore a continuous prayer for progress goes to him. My appreciation goes to my entire family such as mom Khadija Bala Sagagi, Mariya Bala Sagagi, Dahiru Bala Sagagi, Aisha Bala, Habibu, Akibu Bala, Saifullahi Bala, and Nusaiba Bala. For their words of goodwill during the undertaking. My profound gratitude goes to my humble supervisor Muhammad ma`azu yusuf (MM Yusuf) for his efforts, encouragement and patience, who despite his tight schedule had endeavoured to go through the whole manuscript pointing out areas of deficiency and shallow reasoning. I have in deed benefited from his wealth of experience and knowledge. Also my appreciation goes to my level coordinator Dr. Bawa Gusau; I also wish to extend my word of appreciation to my Department Secretary Hajiya Madina, for her cordial treatment of the students and commitment to their attention. I also like to thank mallam Sadi for his fatherly advice.  I will not forget Engineer (Dr. P hd. in view) Auwalu Dabo Sagagi (Area manager) of   the Philatinum Habib Bank plc. Post office road, Kano for   his    brotherly advice   and guidance on and during my academic.

I also wish to acknowledge the concern and attention of my   brother Tukur Bala Sagagi and His wife Khadija T B and my Relatives, towards actualization of my academic achievement. Lastly, to my closest school friends and colleagues such as Nafiu Sani Ibrahim, Abba Abdullahi, Muktar Bello, Sameer Nuhu Bala, shamsu A Sagagi let me say thank you all for everything.

My special gratitude goes to my role model comrade Y Z yau of centre for information and development CITAD. And entire staff of CITAD such as mallam  Ahmad Abdullahi Yakasai, Abubakar  Muktar Yakasai, Ado Yakasai, Muktar Sulaiman umar, Isiyaku Garba, yushau Sani Yankuzo, Abdurrashid Ibrahim Sadiq, Abdullahi  a Abdullahi,Abdullahi ismail, Nura Rabiu, , Fatima Ibrahim, Sagir Ado yakasai, Haruna Adamu Hadeja .Abubakar m Tsangarwa. Uwaisu Adam Mohammad Manladan. Engineer Kamaludden Umar Muhammad Ibrahim Daneji, Garba Idris Masama, Rabiu yau and Abdullahi Balarabe Yakubu. (Chairman)

I finally appreciate the concern of Ibrahim Muazzam Maibushira of Islamic studies department, Tijjani Dankaura and all those who help me in one way or another towards making my studies a success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

The study will bring the detail impact of globalization of ICT at local level. How ICT has brought a lot of revolution in almost everything. The revolution in Information and Communication Technology has integrated and transformed the lives of the local people. Through ICT people are connected worldwide and thus can meet and interact anywhere any time and the local people are hence inclusive in globalization.

The ICT has brought great change in the socio-economic being of the local people. Specifically the advent of GSM has created a new means of curving unemployment. Many people have become self-employed, and many are foreseeing a brighter future. For the business men the ICT (Especially the Internet) has provide a cheaper and faster means of conducting their business transaction without necessarily exposing themselves to much risk. Parties can meet online through visual communication and where products are involved they can equally be seen and assessed. Money and capital can move from one place to another, and transfers are conducted through electronic medium, such e -banking, e-commerce, Tele-medicine etc

TABLE OF CONTENT

 APPROVAL PAGE………………………………………… II

DEDICATION………………………………………………….III

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………….IV

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………….VIII

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION……………………………………………..     1

1.1     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM……………….. 6

1.2     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY………………………….     8

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES……………………………………… 8

1.4     SCOPEAND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY,.. …………….8

1.5.0 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS…………………………………….9

1.5.1 GLOBALIZATION………………………………………………..9

1.5.2 INOFRMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)…………    …………..9

1.5.3 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

(ICT)………………………………………………………………………………10

1.5.4 LOCAL GOVERNMENT……………………………………………10

1.6.    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES…………………………………..12

 

CHAPTER TWO

 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….17

2.1     GLOBALIZATION……………………………………………… 19

2.1.1. THE VIOLENCE OF GLOBALIZATION……………………22  

2.1.2. MILITARY GLOBALIZATION………………………………..  23

2.1.3 THE PATHWAYS OF GLOBALIZATION (ECONOMIC

GLOBALIZAT1ON)…………………………………………………………23

2.1.4 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ICTS IN THIS PROCESS? …..26

2.2.0 THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION     ‘ TECHNOLOGY (ICT)………………………………………………………26

2.2.1 FUNCTION OF ICT……………………….:……………………….27

2.2.2 ICT AND EDUCATION……………………………………………..28

2.3.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………….29

2.3.1 ADULATORY AND ALARMIST THEORY……………………21

2.3.2 THE OPTIMIST THEORY…….’….,………………………………29

2.3.3 THE PESSIMIST THEORY……………………………………….. 30

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0   INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………33

3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY………’………………………. 33

3.2 SAMPLE SIZE………………………..’.’…………………………….33

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES……………………………………….34

3.4 DATA COLLECTION………………………………………………34

3.5 RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………..34

3.6 PROBLEMS RELATING. TO THE COLLECTION OF DATA.. 35

3.7 EDITING, RECORDING AND TABULATION………………….36

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.2     DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION…………………38

4.3     HYPOTHESES TESTING……………………………………………..49

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………53

5.2.    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION……………………….54

INDEX …………………………………………………………………….64


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

There is hardly any aspect of modern living that does not require the use of information technology. It is significant that in the developed world the conscious or unconscious tragedy has been to ensure that the average home has at least one personal computer. Consequently, even the young once are trained to remain ahead of other children by relating to computer technology as the second nature. Indeed, the computer has become a basic tool, rather than leisure for solving life’s problems. Hence, information technology help to simplify and easy communication on public formation categorically the use of Internet, satellite, and cellular mobile network etc. all Federal Government .Ministries, Departments, .Interdepartmental Agencies and Commissions are all online. Information Technology (IT) has become a veritable instrument of world politics. The nation of the world with high technological powers tent to control the less technologically advanced once. This is evident when we observed the activities of the G7 nations and the United Nation Security Council. Only nations which can hold their own technological are the members of the UN Security Council. A country with little technological track records stands dwarfed in today’s world politics.

The development of capitalism has taken a new dimension and has today succeeded in conquering everywhere and everything in the world. Today the world is seen as a global village where everything and every body can reach and be reached from anywhere through the power of new technology. Globalization therefore, has to do with processes by which different human communities and nations become integrated in one single system called global village. Therefore, whether as a historical process or as an ideological construct, globalization brings about greater interaction between countries, and between peoples all over the world. John Tomlinson, (1996), defines it as “a rapidly developing process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions and individuals world wide. It is a social process which involves a compression of time and space, shrinking distances through a dramatic reduction in time taken – either physically or representationally – to cross them, so making the world seem smaller and in certain sense bringing human beings ‘closer’ to one another”.

The possibility of compression of time and space in the interrelations has only been achieved through the pivot of technology, specifically the information and communication technology (ICT). People don’t have to move to get where they want to go. Money doesn’t have to be taken to the markets and virtually all- aspects of our life have been electronized through technology of the cyber space, so much so that the entire people in the world are being subjected to become gradually living under one system called globalization. Thomas Friedman, (1996), sees it as “the loose combination of free trade agreements, the internet and the integration of financial markets that is erasing boarders and uniting the world into a single lucrative, but brutally competitive market place,”

Thus, globalization reduces the world into an integrated system of market; where international trade is considered to be the major engine of economic growth, and should therefore be facilitated. This facilitation is achieved through trade liberalisation, necessitating the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers. In addition, states are to withdraw from social provisioning by privatizing state social service organizations, which only left states with the role of creating a conducive atmosphere for private sector-led development. In concrete terms, globalization presents itself as the breaking down of national barriers in terms of trade; flow of information and capital, and in terms of ownership of key industries. Multinational corporations are increasingly displacing local ownership in key and dynamic sectors of national economies.

What then is the role of ICT in this process? At one level, the ICTs provide the pathways with which the world is brought together, conquering both time and space. At another, the ICTs also link up the new manufacturing outposts of the transnational corporations in the south to their markets in the North. The technology of e-commerce means an easy and speedy movement of capital in the every form of market. One of the pillars of globalization is international trade in services. In the past, a country or firm offering these services in another country must had to either be physically located in the country that it wants to offer the services or set up a local representative, usually, a subsidiary, where operations were subject to national policies. Now with ICTs, these services are being offered in a wider scope online. Electronic banking, online education, telemedicine, data processing etc are the deliverables through which the WTO’s General Agreements on Trades in services (GATs) is being operationalized.

In general, the globalization as a process of integrating the world has become more possible through ICTs. There is virtually nothing one can do to exempt himself from the use of ICTs. In schools, at work, businesses, factories, hospitals, offices, organizations, market, government, security, war sports, music/arts, in short everything; the ICT has contributed immensely in renewing our lives in the era of digitization. Thus, a considerable achievement or failure of the ICT as a new development of globalization of capitalism can be assessed in whatever part of the world.

Governments have been forced to almost everywhere to subscribe with the political ideologies of the capitalist. Globalization has changed the nature of policy making in that it demands conformity with policy prescriptions, which national policy making instruments (as military) and processes have no role in articulating. The democracy, which is meant to encourage the participation of citizens in the decision making of their own affairs, has been substantively undermined by the top-down flows of policy from the international trade regulating organizations. This is more real in areas of economic resources of interest, where capital exploits labour and extract surplus abroad.

The conversion of grass root or local levels into final level of modernity has reached the age of high-tech, a technology that cannot be done away with. This is obvious when electronics have become our immediate assistants. Indeed we are in the era of nuclear and electronic technology, which is of course the result of globalization.

Upon this background, this research is an attempt to explore the significance of globalization in municipal local government area, Kano State, Nigeria, with specific reference to information and communication technology (ICT). Since the (ICT) has become the fundamental pillar in the current era of globalization, it has become imperative in every form of discourse concerning globalization.

1.1    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM    

 

A research is a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new fact or test a new idea. It could also be the activity of finding information about something that one is interested in or need to know about. Therefore, this research is specifically designed to explore the linkage between globalization and ICTs, and the emerging world that such linkage is evolving. It is arguable to assert that globalization is not only enable by ICTs, but that the level of connectivity of a country determines to a large degree the possibility of its benefiting from the globalization process.

This research is titled “Globalization at local .level” with municipal local government as a case study. Thus, the research is designed to answer the following questions:

·        To what extent is the world globalize at local levels?

·        What    is    the    impact    of   globalization    in    municipal    local government area today?

It is very open that human societies are constantly changing like every other thing, but evidently while’ a change is necessary; it is not always a progress. Thus the research will also find out the become our immediate assistants. Indeed we are in the era of nuclear and electronic technology, which is of course the result of globalization.

Upon this background, this research is an attempt to explore the significance of globalization in Municipal local government area, Kano State, Nigeria, with specific reference to information and communication technology (ICT). Since the ICT has become the fundamental pillar in the current era of globalization, it has become imperative in every form of discourse concerning globalization

1.2   SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Information and communication technology is often described as the driving force behind globalization; it is also promoted as a tool for democratization with connectivity heralded as the end of the digital divide. In truth, there is no doubt electronic communication has facilitated the flow of information around the globe and that it has increased opportunities for human right activist and democracy activist to build international support for their struggles. The principal justification or significance to this study is to Endeavour to add to the existing knowledge on the development in globalization as a process of integrating the world. It is obvious that our routine activities are being facilitated by the new technology ICT. People interact every where every time and the task of getting across we wish as become simplified and easy.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The research is aimed at making a critical assessment of the current era of globalization at the local level. It is specifically designed to capture the reality of grass root people in response to globalization with objectives as follows:

·        To determine the impact of globalization   in   Municipal local government.

·        To  determine  the   impact  of  ICT  on   the  development  of

Knowledge in the area.

·        To determine the impact of ICT as media in  municipal; local

Government,

·        To determine the impact of ICT as factor of production in Municipal local government.

·         To determine the impact of ICT as mover of organizational change in municipal local government.

1.4   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research is confined to Municipal local government area, Kano state and will give treatment to the information and communication technology (ITC) as the prime instrument in the current development of globalization of capitalism. Specifically, the research will limit itself to Tele-centers and Internet cafe as main target. Many areas would have been touched but for constraints we are compelled otherwise.

1.5 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

 GLOBALIZATION: The term globalization has become word in the last two decades. At least since the advancement of industrial capitalism intellectual discussion has been replete with illusions of the phenomena strikingly akin to those that have garnered the attention of recent the scholars of globalization. In a Marx’s account the imperative of capitalist production inevitably drove the bourgeoisie to nestle everywhere. In classical conception the term Globalization restricted to trade liberalization and proliferation of new information technology which transform the world into global village.

        INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT):

 Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. In particular the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process,    transmit,    and    retrieve    information   from   anywhere, anytime.

INFORMATION    AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT):

Is the catch-all phrase used to describe a range of technologies for gathering, storing, retrieving, processing, analyzing and transmitting information. Advances in ICT have progressively reduced the costs of managing information, enabling individuals and organizations to undertake information-related tasks   much   more   efficiently,   and   to   introduce   innovations   in products, processes and organizational structures.

         LOCAL GOVERNMENT

It is very difficult to define the concept ‘local government. It connotes different meanings and interpretation in different countries. In some nations, local government is described as “a sub-unit of government controlled by a Local Council which is authorized by central government to pass ordinances having local application, label local taxes and exert labour, within limits specified by the central government”. In other nations, it is defined as “the legal conferring of powers to discharge specific or residual functions upon formally constituted authorities”. Accordingly, the United Nations sees it as a political sub-division of nation (in federal system), which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs including the power to impose taxes or exert labour for prescribed purpose. The governing body of such an entity is elected or otherwise locally selected. The third tier nature of local government was- established by the 1976 local government reform here in Nigeria and has described local government as “government at the grassroots level exercised through representative councils established by law and to exercise specific power within defined areas”.

Therefore, a critical observation of what has been said so far as regards to the conceptual definition of local government indicates to us that they should serve as instruments of achieving the interest of holders of political power (i.e. the representative councils). Thus, the independence of the political units, their structures and functions are strictly guided by the philosophical and ideological inclinations of these representative councils. As far as this research essay is conceded, local governments are taken to mean political institutions created by the higher authority (state or federation) with the basic contention that these institutions would also serve as instrument of bringing the governments nearer to the people.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Ho -       Globalization transforms the lives of the local people

Positively. H1 -       Globalization transforms the lives of the local people

Negatively. Ho -        Information     and    communication    technology    has

Flourished   the   socio   economic   being   of   the   local

People. H1 -        Information    and    communication    technology    has

Worsened   the   socio   economic   being   of the   local

People. Ho -        Information and communication technology is a threat

To the moral values of the local people. H1 -        Information and communication technology is not a threat to the moral values of the local people.

 

 

 

 

 

PLAN OF THE STUDY

The work is presented in five chapters, chapter one is a general introduction which gives statement of the research problem, significance aims and objectives as well as scope and limitation and definition of terms.

The chapter two treats the literature reviews, it covers wide range of issues such as globalization, the violence of globalization, the pathways of globalization, economics globalization, the role of ICTs in the globalization process, the information and communication technology in education as well as it function, it also look at theoretical frame work, theories like adulatory alarmist theory, the optimist theory and lastly the pessimistic theory.

Chapter three covers range of issues such as research methodology, population of the study, sample size, sampling techniques, data collection as well as  problems relating to the collection of data, editing, recording and tabulation.

Chapter four will present, analyze and interpret findings; questionnaires will be issued out to various cafes and Tele -centers.

Chapter five will dealt with summary, recommendation, and conclusion, moreover useful website will be added at the end of the chapter and indexing.

References:

1.      Ali A. Mazrui, (2003), “Nigeria Between Lord Lugard and the Digital

Divide: Political Culture and the Skill Revolution” in http://www/gooqle search, org/webworld/infoethics-2/eng/papers/paper

2.       Amin S. (1990), Mal-development Anatomy of Global Failure, Zed Press, London

3.       Anthony Lelliott, Shirley Pendlebury and Penny Enslin “Promise of Access and Inclusion: Online Education in Africa’, Journal of philosophy of Education”, in Special Issues: Engines of the Interface: philosophical problems of online education, Edited by: Migel Blake and Paul Standish, (Edit)-2000-Vol. 39

4.       Beck, U. (1999), What is Globalization?, Cambridge: Polity Press.

5.       Beck, U. (2001)’Living your life in a runaway world:

individualization, globalization and polities’, in W. Mutton and A. Giddens, (edit) On The Edge Living with global capitalism, … London: Vintage.

6.       Castells, M. (1996), The Rises of the Networked Society, Oxford: Blakcwell

7.       Castells, M. (2001), ‘Information technology and global’ in W. Mutton and Anthony Gidden, (edit), On The Edge. Living with global capitalism, London: Vintage.

8.       Cogburn, D. L. (1998) ‘Globalization, knowledge,’education and training in the global world’. Conference paper for the InfoEthichs 98 UNESCO. http://www/unesco.org/webworld/mfoethics-2/eng/papers/paper 23htm

9.       Fox J. P., (2001), Chomsky and Globalization,  London: Icon Books

10.     Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton,. J. (1999), (Edit) Global Transformations politics, economics and culture, Cambridge: Polity Press.

11.     HEIDEGGER, M., (1978), “The Question Concerning Technology“, in ed.  KRELL, (edit) Basic Writings London

12.     KALDOR, M., (1982).The Baroque Arsenal (Deutsch London)

13.    KROKER. A.. (1992) The Possessed Individual: technology and post modernity, (Macmillan London)

14.     Manuel Castells, (no date), Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development, pgs 8-11, Macmillan London

15.    Sukomal Sen, (undated), ‘Impact of Capitalist Globalization on the Working Class: The public and financial services’ www. google search ng.

16.     Y. Z. Ya’u (2002) “Globalization, ICT‘s and the New Imperialism: Perspective on Africa in the Global Electronic Village” (GEV), yunusaayau@hotmail.com, google search ng.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0   INTRODUCTION:

The convergence of microelectronics, communication and computing technologies has given rise to new information systems, which have the ability to manipulate information rapidly in a number of ways and deliver such information with incredible speed at very low cost. This manipulative attribute of the new systems has itself given rise to new categories of services while enhancing old ones. The Internet in particular, which is at the center of the information technology mediated world, is critical to the globalization process, that is the integration of the world into what is termed as the Global Village.

Ever since Canadian communication pioneer Marshal Mcluhan (1911-1980) used the phrase global village in the 1960s to refer to this contracting world, the concept of global electronic village (GEV) has gained increasing currency and an apparent objective reality. The world has become fully connected and brought together at the instance of a click of the mouse. Beyond this virtual reality, however, lies a military reconstruction of the world through a globalization process’, which is seen as the integration of the world into a single dominant technology of power. At the heart of this process is the Information Technology, or more broadly, information and communication technologies (ICTs), that ever-pervasive technology that is changing the ways in which we do things. The ICT, to be more simplistic is seen as a revolution in everything. Information Technology has unleashed a torrent of technological changes in the societies that have profound implication in the way in which the world social system is organized. Today it is possible to interact with others from a bed room since the wisdom of ICT has make it convenient to coordinate interactions with a click of a mouse and touches on a key board.

One of the controversies that characterize explanations of the September 11th attack on the United States of America was that, an organized network of terrorist operated the planes using the robotics technology through satellites controlled by their computers.

Whether true or otherwise, today military satellites bases are planted for security and peace all over the world, both by government and private organization, which coordinate with their head quarters through the net. Terrorists groups are believed to be operating through the same information and communication technology. The ALQAEDA in particular operate through such invisible network of the cyber power. From neocolonial point of view the information and communication technology has provided the neocolonialist a cheaper and efficient access to the economy of the third world. Technologization of both business and commercial activities has inevitably integrated the third world into colonies of cyber exploitation. That today no one single thing we can do without the indispensable ICT. Indeed, the power of technology has grown up to.escalate globalization. In the words of Today the use of force worldwide, especially by the major powers to achieve desired objective has almost unanimously assume an acceptance in the globalization process.

 2.1   GLOBALIZATION

John Art Schulte has captured a more all embracing conception of globalization. He argued that globalization can is seen generally to mean internationalization, liberalization, universalization, Deterritorialization, and or modernization. As internationalization, Art described it as “cross boarder relation between countries which involves growth in international exchange and interdependency, i.e. international process and transaction. As liberalization, He sees it as “the removal of all restrictions on movement imposed by government to create a borderless world economy.” By universalization John Art means “the speed of various objects and experiences to people everywhere on earth such as computer and TV.” As modernization (Westernization and Americanization), Art sees it as “dynamic whereby the social structure of modernity (capitalism, rationalism, industrialism bureaucratism etc) spread over the world to displace and destroy the existing cultures of local self-determination in the process.” Lastly, Art sees globalization as Deterritorialization to refer the spacio temporal compression of distance through making state boarders porous ones.

Of all these approaches/definitions, it is only the last, according to Schulte, that offers the possibility of a clear and specific definition of globalization. The notion of supraterritoriality (or trans-world or trans-boarder relations), he argued, provides way into appreciating what is global about globalization.

Globalization is a far-reaching ‘topic. Broadly speaking, globalization has many perspectives and commentators. The Western euro American capitalist societies views of globalization focus on economics and politics, while the Eastern socio-communist societies views often focus on philosophy and culture. However, two Canadian scholars, Marshall McLuhan and Harold Innis, seem to bridge both East and West in their studies. At any rate, whether seen as a historical process or an ideological construct, globalization brings about greater interaction between countries, and between peoples. John Tomlinson (1996) defines it as “a rapidly developing process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions and individuals world-wide. It is a social process which involves a compression of time and space, shrinking distances through a dramatic reduction in the time taken – either physically or representationally – to cross them, so making the world seem smaller and in a certain sense bringing human beings ‘closer’ to one another”. Thomas Friedman (1996) sees it as “the loose combination of free-trade agreements, the Internet and the integration of financial markets that is erasing borders and uniting the world into a single lucrative, but brutally competitive marketplace”.

Interestingly, in spite of its continuity as a process, globalization differs in transformation from one time in history to another. M. M. Yusuf, (2006), argued that, the current globalization is a capitalist globalization. However, capitalism has not started the current globalization. Rather since it was born (capitalism) it was global by nature. Yusuf contends that, when discussing globalization, there are four issues to be remembered viz:

·        The current globalization is not the beginning of globalization.  Globalization   is just a   means of worldwide expansion of capitalism, therefore, it is imperialism.

·        Globalization (the current one) is associated with increasing

Inequalities and poverty.

·        Globalization    has    never   been    peaceful.    It    is    always

Associated with usage of force with military operations.

2.1.1.    THE VIOLENCE OF GLOBALIZATION

The shock of terrorist attacks and a worldwide economic slowdown has prompted many observers to declare globalization’s end. According to John Gray, a professor of European thought at the London School of Economics and Political Science, less than two weeks after the September 11th terrorist attacks upon the United States, “the globalization of the world is over”. In fact, Gray had been a staunch critic of globalization, so it might be tempting to dismiss his musings as ideological triumphalism. But longtime proponents of globalization also had their faith shaken by the events of the past years. Even before terrorism and war dominated the current political and economic thoughts, other forces threatened to transform the process of global integration into one of disintegration.

2.1.2.        MILITARY GLOBALIZATION

Contribution to the conceptual foundation of the current debate is the writings of Soviet military theorists in the 1970s, who believed that the introduction of precision-guided munitions was ushering in equally dramatic change. These Russian writings popularized the term “revolution in military affairs,” which theorists in the West co-opted to describe the even more dramatic changes in warfare they anticipated would result from the application of Information technology and space   systems to military organizations.

2.1.3         THE PATHWAYS OF GLOBALIZATION (ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION)

Whether seen as an historical process or an ideological construct, globalization brings about greater interaction between countries, and between peoples. John Tomlinson (1996) defines it as “a rapidly developing process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions and individuals world-wide. It is a social process which involves a compression of time and space, shrinking distances through a dramatic reduction in the time taken – either physically or representationally – to cross them, so making the world seem smaller and in a certain sense bringing human beings ‘closer’ to one another”. Thomas Friedman (1996) sees it as “the loose combination of free-trade agreements, the Internet and the integration of financial markets that is erasing borders and uniting the world into a single lucrative, but brutally competitive marketplace”.

Globalization reduces the world into an integrated system of markets. Under the process, international trade is considered to be the major engine of economic growth, and should therefore be facilitated. This facilitation is to be done through trade liberalization, necessitating the removal of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers. In addition, states are to withdraw from social provisioning by privatizing state social service organizations. The role of states is being reducing to that of creating a conducive environment for private sector-led development.

In   concrete   terms,    globalization   presents   itself   as   the

Breaking down of national barriers in terms of trade, flow of information and capital, and in terms of ownership of key industries. Multinational corporations are increasingly displacing local ownership in key and dynamic sectors of national economies. It is also changing the nature of national policy making in that globalization demands conformity with policy prescriptions, which national policy making instruments (as military) and processes have no role in articulating. This last has serious implication to the essence of national democracy. Democracy is about the capacity of citizens to participate in the process of decision-making and to influence their governments in the process. In the context of globalization, the space for this has been constrained as policy flows top-down from the international trade regulating organization (through their military technological empowerment) to national governments. This means that globalization disempowers citizens, and therefore, substantively undermines democracy globally.

The debate about the nature and impact of globalization is ongoing. However, certain consensus is building. For instance, it is now understood to encompass not “just about deepening of financial markets, but includes a whole range of social, political, economic and military phenomena” that is simultaneously driven and facilitated by developments in ICTs (Cog burn and Adeya, 1999:2. O’Neill 1999: 1) talks of them as being “seminal to the globalization process”. It is also agreed that in this process, the World Trade Organization (WTO), an organization ostensibly

Established to regulate world trade, has come to assume the role of global governance, whose modus operandi are, as Dot Keet (1999: 9) remarks “the product of, self-serving and highly tendentious military and political processes; and based on upon and reflecting a particular economic model or paradigm favoring the strong”.

2.1.4 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ICTS IN THIS PROCESS?

At one level, ICTs provide the pathways with which the world is brought together, conquering both time and space. The critical role of ICTs here is that they allow the flow of information at incredible speed. This means that those that are connected have better access to the most comprehensive flow of information of all sort, they can better coordinate their activities and management. ICTs also link up the new manufacturing outposts of the transnational corporations in the South to their markets .in the North.

2.2.0 THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

According to Howell and Lund ell “ICT broadly refers to all forms of technology, use to create, ”store, process and use information in its various forms I.e. data, voice, image, multi-media etc which enable, facilitates and support communications.” Because ICT use e-waves Howell and Lund ell comment that it refers to the convergence of microelectronic computers and telecommunication which makes it possible for data, including text, videos and & signals to be transmitted anywhere in the world wherever they are found.

There are many devices in the ICT, which include networks such as fixed wireless and satellite communication broadcasting networks and applications, such as internet, d-base, multimedia etc. Howell and Lund ell further noted that there are four technical names of such things :

1.       Capturing   Technology:    Keyboard,   voice    recognition system, mouse etc.

2.       Storage Technology: CD ROMs, floppy disc, flash disc, Zip drives, memory card etc.

3.      Communication    Technology:     Electronic    bulletin board.

4.      Display Technology:  Digital video disc, computers etc.

2.2.1     FUNCTION OF ICT

The ICT function is that of developing, acquiring, testing, implementing and maintaining electronic systems. These systems include databases, applications and procedures to support the business needs of the organization in the capture, storage, retrieval, transfer, communication, process and dissemination of information, includes the evaluation, acquisition, tendering, leasing, licensing and disposal of software and hardware. (metadata.curtin.edu.au/manual/classification.html).

According to M. M. Yusuf, (2006), “because ICT is many to many with hundreds of thousands sending and receiving information, it has become of greatest use in development and sharing of knowledge and ideas all over the world. He added “The1CT is very significant to the educational purposes in that no society can survive without it.” Although Africa is far behind, the relevance and significance of the internet cannot be undermined. In fact gradually we coming up age and is manifested in some school-net projects in primary and post primary, while some universities are already connected online.

2.2.2         ICT AND EDUCATION

In this brief overview of the Open Education movement, Rice University’s Richard Baraniuk frames the opportunities and challenges that face initiatives to globally share self-created educational materials. He writes that the goals of this movement are:

      To bring people back into the educational equation -particularly those who have been “shut out” of the traditional publishing world, like people who don’t read and write English, scientists and engineers out in industry, and talented K-12 teachers. . _

      To reduce the high cost of teaching materials.

      To reduce the time lag between producing course materials and textbooks and getting them into the hands of students.

      To enable re-use and re-contextualization such as translation and localization of course materials into myriad different languages and cultures.

2.3.0        THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

From the theoretical standpoint the research present three theories on the revolution of Information and Communication Technology (ITC).

2.3.1         ADULATORY AND ALARMIST THEORY

This theory predicts an amalgamation of existing and yet to be invented information technologies into one single multi-purpose, multi-dimensional machine for instantaneous accessibility. It assumes that in due future, the integration of the world will exhibits electronic pattern whereby the global systems will follow the dictate of one single coordinated machine with wings across everywhere. In fact, this has already begun in some part of the world. The Internet online educational services will eventually conquer all levels of education worldwide and there will be one single base to coordinate the system. At the moment the ICT is beginning to take monopoly of knowledge whereby computers are replacing books and libraries transformed into online services.

2.3.2         THE OPTIMIST THEORY

This theory sees ICT as a room in which learning, information, communication can be in the style the user prefers and on aspects the user finds most interesting. That means the modern technology has come up with friendly machines (Computer) that allows for multiple flexibility by the user. The theory posits that the current development of technology is designed with the capacity to enhance the user intuition. That is to say the role of teachers is gradually eroding in that through modern computers and software people require little or no teacher’s presence before they could learn.

2.3.2         THE PESSIMIST THEORY

This theory contends that there is much bleaker future in which a new power elites will emerge along with their new system of technology of inequalities. Therefore according to this theory until there is equal access to these technologies, the Utopian vision of the empowered individual is a long way off. Indeed, this is no illusion especially in Africa where for so many reasons we lag very far behind. These include poverty, illiteracy, bad governance, cultural values to mention a few. In addition, the dependent nature of third- world further narrows their chances of developing their own independent technology. As such they will always cling to the technology the North will offer them for sale especially in Africa.

These theories are very much relevant to the research topic. Globalization at local level implies the integration of all nooks and crannies of the earth. Base on the Adulatory theory the ICT has to some extent succeeded in doing so through the evidence of numerous GSM call centers and Internet cafes.

Similarly, the ICT is quite user friendly that allows for independent self-development. The optimist theory will therefore serve relevance in this research. Lastly, the pessimist theory is equally relevant since we can perceive the dangers associated with ICT to our economic, social, economic, political and even spiritual being. Indeed one writer had concluded that the ICT is an informatics imperialism, i.e. another Way of the stronger to perpetuate the domination of the weaker.

References:

Bala A Muhammad Dec (2007)” toward ethical uses of information and communication technology ICT .CITAD monthly lecture.

Musa Umar M  (2008)   Globalization and it effect on Nigeria. Daily triumph. Monday 7 January, p7 no 6,580, web site. www.triumphnewspapers.com

Sani Bala Shehu (2006) “globalization A curse or blessing to Africa. Unpublished article.

Y z yau (2002) “globalization, ICTs and new imperialism, perspective on Africa in the global electronic village (GEV). Web site. Google.com   

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0    INTRODUCTION

The mechanism of the research are hinged on the method of carrying it out, which has a significant bearing on the focus, types and efficacy of the data collected, and the methodology relates to. The basics which inter-alia include the under mentioned.

3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The study covers the ICTs literate people found in the internet cafes and the subscribers of GSM telephone- services. Also those people who are into same related business i.e. the owners/operators of such ITC centers within the area of the study were contacted to supply the researcher with necessary information that will guide the research work.

This research would have covered” more than the two (call centers and cafes), but for limited resource, time and limited cooperation, as stated earlier, the research has to be confined to only to them.

3.2 SAMPLE SIZE:

The sample of our study has been limited to fifty GSM call centers/internet cafes across the area of Municipal local government. As such, an objectively measurable response with regards to the utility of the ITCs and their consequences can be obtained. In addition, it will provide the researcher with insight picture of the operations of the centers.

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:

The population of municipal local government area is a representation of various cultural, social, economic and other demographic components of the. People of Nigeria. The officials of the companies/establishments are expected to be educated, and so there will be convenience of the interview to be. Conducted in choosing these, non-probability or convenience sampling was applied. A non-probability sampling is a procedure in which population do not have equal chances of being selected or sampled. The samples are drawn on human convenience. Similarly, this was chosen for the convenience of the researchers.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION:

Two pronged approaches of data collection will be adopted to ensure a formidable understanding of the research theme. Primary as well as secondary data will be used in the research.

1. Primary Data: Questionnaires will be administered, and oral interviews to be conducted at the GSM call centers and Internet cafes within municipal local government area. The questionnaire is designed to have two sections. Section one is for general questions on the socio-economic transformation brought by ITCs and section two ask questions related to the relative consequences with regards to the implications of globalization. This will enable the research to find relevant information on the effect of the ITCs as a consequence of globalization.

2. Secondary Data: The secondary data collected were from relevant textbooks, Nigerian and international journals, unpublished   lectures, web site   and   some oral discussion with   relevant people.

iii)  PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE COLLECTION OF DATA

The enormity of data required for the project definitely come out with its peculiarity, which in part relates to problems, which involves scouting for data, finance, time constraints etc. In the course of this project the main problem is the time constrain. A dissertation paper of this magnitude requires ample time in view of the varied demands.

Another problem is the limited cooperation especially in oral interviews with the operators of the centers as they are not too sure whether the research has to do with tax levies.

3.5 RESEARCH QUESTION:

The research questions were designed to obtain a direct and suitable data from the respondents so as to enable the researcher in analyzing the impact of globalization via ICTs at our local levels.

Moreover, the same questions in the same wording were applied to all the respondents. Lastly closed ended questions with double and multiple seal options were used.

3.6 EDITING, RECORDING AND TABULATION

A. FIELD EDITING:

Each of the response is cross check at the source for errors and appropriately corrected. This is primarily to detect omissions or errors in the responses from those interviewed

Similarly, the field editing is complimented by central office edit. This involved more complete scrutiny and corrections of the completed response returned to ensure consistency of treatment.

B. RECORDING: While recording the data, the various responses were coded into   categories   for   evasion,   computation   and   analysis.   The questions were designed with double multiple options.

C.  TABULATION:

The use of close-ended questions involving the use of tabular frame works.

References:

Abubakar m tsangarwa 2007”ICT and job  opportunity”. CITAD monthly lecture organized by the centre.

Bala A Muhammad “ toward ethical uses of information and communication technology (ICT)” CITAD monthly lecture organized by the centre.

Fatima A Ibrahim July (2007)”ICT and women, understanding the gender digital divide. CITAD monthly lecture organized by the centre.

Muazu  M Yusuf   may (2007)” workers, globalization and information and communication technology. Web blog: www.mmyusuf.blogspot.com

Muazu M Yusuf (2007) “ICT for learning and education beyond information”. Web blog. www.mmyusuf.blogspot.com

CHAPTER FOUR

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

 

4.0 INTRODUCTION

 

This chapter considers the various information gathered from questionnaires, answers provided for each question are subjected to a through process of analysis and interpretation.

    Similarly, aggregate responses from the interview conducted to cafe staff (cafe managers) are presented.

Five cafes were selected in municipal local government area, which include:

1.   ZULAIHA CAFE. Zulaiha cafe was established in 2000, and it was located along Abdullahi Wase road in metropolis, Umma Bayero house. Mega-tech was their service provider (ISP) they have 20 computers (desktops), plus one server.

2.   CITY CENTRE CAFES: This cafe was situated at Sabuwar Kofa road adjacent to school of hygiene hostels. The centre has 15 computers plus one server. Mega-tech was their service provider (ISP) it was established in 2002.

3.   SKY WORLD CAFE: The cafe was established in 2004. It was situated at Diso Waziri Gidado Street, adjacent to Shehu Maihula mosque. Horizon was their internet service provider. (ISP). They have 10 computers (Desktop).

4.   ALWABEL CAFES AND RESTAURANT. It was situated at Abdullahi Wase road, (Sabon Titi) Mandawari, quarters, adjacent to the chief imam of Kano alkali Idris Kuliya house. It was established in March 2008. Their service provider (ISP) is V-sat, which means they receive service direct. They have 25 computers desktop flat screens. Plus one server.

5.   MULTI CHOICE CAFE. This cafe was situated at Mandawari quarters along Abdullahi Wase road  Starcomm was their service provider (ISP).They have 4 computers desktop computers. The cafes was established in 2006, and start operating in December 2007.

 

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

Hundred questionnaires were issued out to various owners/operators of internet cafes in municipal.

This was done in order to have a real picture of the significance of ICT as a pillar upon which the current era of globalisation is evolving.

  Therefore, our analysis will be structured in line with changes brought about ICT as follow:

Q.1 HOW LONG ARE YOU IN THIS BUSSINESS?

TABLE 1

TYPES OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

8

1

20

6

1

20

4

1

20

2

1

20

LESS THAN AYEAR

1

20

TOTAL

5

 IOO %

Source: survey research.

One of the respondents/cafes, representing 20% are in the business for 8 years, one representing 20% are in the business for 6 years, 20

5 for four years, 20% for two years, while 20% less than a year.

This shows that, the people of the area have long embraced ICT as a factor of production.

Q.2 WERE YOU INTO SIMILAR BUSINESS BEFORE?

TABLE 2

TYPE OF RESPONCES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

YES

2

40

NO

3

60

TOTAL

5

100

Source: survey research.

 From the above it shows that that 40% of the responses were into similar business before, while 60% are only new into ICT business.

Q.3 WHAT KIND OF CUSTOMERS DO YOU HAVE?

TABLE 3

TYPE OF RESPONSE

NO OF CAFE

PERCENTAGE

STUDENTS/RESEACHERS

1

20

FOOTBALL FANS

2

40

BUSINESS MEN

1

20

OTHERS

1

20

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

From the above it shows that 20% of those who patronize cafes are students/researchers, 40% are footballs fans, 20%are business men, while 20%

Constitute others who contact their friends, lovers or pals.

Q.4 ON THE AVERAGE HOW MANY CUSTOMERS DO YOU HAVE PER DAY?

TABLE 4.

TYPES OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTSGE

350

2

40

200

1

20

150

1

20

BELOW

1

20

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

  From the above it shows that, there is increasing usage of the ICT in the study area since 40% of the cafe attends 350 persons per days, 20% attend 200 persons, and 20% attend 150 per day, while 20% attend less than 100 persons per day.

Q 5 DO YOU THINK YOU ARE BETTER OFF WITH YOUR PRESENT BUSINESS NOW THAN BEFORE?

TABLE 5

TYPES OF RESPONCE

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

YES

3

60

NO

1

20

CAN NOT SAY

1

20

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

 60% of the cafes are better off with their present business than before, while 20% are not and 20% cannot say exactly.

Q 6 DO YOU ALSO AGREE THAT ICT HAS INCREASE GAINFUL EMPLOYEMENT?

TABLE 6

TYPES OF RESPONSE

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

YES

3

60

NO

1

20

CANONOT SAY

1

20

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

From the above it could be noted 60% of the cafes agreed that, the ICT has contributed in providing gainful employment at local level, while 20% said no and only 20% cannot say.

Q 7 DO YOU SEE ANY MORAL DANGER ASSCIATED WITH YOUR BUSINESS?

TABLE7

TYPES OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

YES

3

60

NO

1

20

CANNOT SAY

1

20

TOTAL

5

100

Source: survey research.

From the above 60 % of the cafes agreed that there are moral dangers associated with ICT, while 20% said no, and 20% cannot say.

Q 8 DO YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM WITH CUSTOMERS?

TABLE 8

TYPES OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTGE

YES

3

60

NO

2

40

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

It pertinent to note that from the responses there is always problem with customers in business, but in this context it is largely for ignorance on how to operate the device at internet cafes as seen in the above.

Q 9 WHAT OTHER PROBLEM DO YOU ENCOUNTER?

TABLE 9

TYPES OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

NETWORK

2

40

OTHERS

3

60

TOTAL

5

100

Source: survey research.

It shows from the above that ICT is not yet fully concretized in the country that is why 40% of the cafes have network problem becomes very common among cafes.

Q 10 HOW CAN YOU ASSES THE ROLE OF TRANSFORMATION OF OUR SOCIETY FROM THE REVOLUTION IN ICT?

TABLE 10

TYPE OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

VERY RAPID

3

60

RAPID

1

20

SLOW

1

20

TOTAL

5

100%

Source: survey research.

From the above 60% of the cafes agreed the ICT has transformed our society very rapidly, while 20% say only rapid and 20% say slowly.

Q 11 WHICH CLASS OF YOUR CUSTOMERS SPENDS MORETIME ONLINE?

TABLE 11

TYPE OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

STUDENTS/RESEARCHSERS

3

60

FREIND/SPORT/MOVIES FANS

1

20

BUSINESS MEN

1

20

TOTAL

5

100

Source: survey research.

From the above response it show that 60% of those who patronize  internet cafes are students/researchers, 20 % are on friends sport lovers and movie fans, while 20% constitute business purposes.

Q 12 IN GENERAL, WHAT DO YOU THINK CAN HINDER THE PROSPECT OF ICT AS A MEANS OF INTERACTION TODAY?

TABLE. 12

TYPE OF RESPONSES

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGES

POVERTY

2

40

ILLITERACY

1

20

NUMBER OF SERVICE PROVIDERS

1

20

GOVERNMENT WITHDRAWAL

1

20

TOTAL

5

100

Source: survey research.

From the above responses it shows that 40% of the cafes believe that poverty is the major obstacle to the prospect of ICT 20% believes it is illiterate, while 20 % link it with the number of service providers, and still another 20% attach it to the government withdrawal from the information sector.

Q 13 WHAT DO YOU SEE ABOUT THE FUTURE OF ICT AND YOUR BUSINESS?

TABLE 13

TYPES OF RESPONSE

NO OF CAFES

PERCENTAGE

BRIGHT FUTURE

3

60

LESS BRIGHTER

1

20

BLEAKER

1

20

TOTAL

5

100

 Source: survey research. 2008

From the above it shows that there is a much brighter future in the growth and development of ICT related business, as only 20% of their cafes are pessimistic.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING/ PROOF OF HYPOTHESIS.

As earlier stated in this work to decide the outcome of this study, various hypotheses were developed. They will now be subjected to empirical test in proving our assumptions so as to determine whether to accept or to reject the hypothesis as the case may be.

H1: Globalization transforms the lives of local people positively.

From our findings, we accept that, globalisation transforms the lives of local people positively.

Respondents/cafes managers answer to question no 6 in the questionnaire were use to test this hypotheses. From the analysis it revealed that 60% of the cafes agreed it indicate that information and communication technology  ICT has contributed in providing gainful employment at local level, where productivity is enhance and efficient. Therefore the hypothesis is accepted.

H2: Information and communication technology has flourished the socio-economic being of the local people.

   From our finding we accept ICT has flourished the socio-economic being of local people positively. In testing these hypothesis cafes managers’ answers to the question 5 and 13 was used. From the response we can see 60% of the cafes were of the View that information and communication technology has flourished the socio-economic being of local people positively.

  However it is open for everybody. The process of their activities was so expeditiously rendered. As such the hypothesis is proved right hence accepted.

H3: information and communication technology is thread to moral values of the local people.

The rapid innovations of technology make it risky for the local people in term of morality and also thread to culture.

Cafes answers to question no 7 in the questionnaires were used to test this hypothesis from the analysis it revealed that 60%, see there is moral dangers associated with ICT, at local level, the hypothesis is tested right as such is accept.

References:

Amin S (1990)” mal development anatomy of global failure” 2nd press, London.

Anthony lelliott, Shirley pendlebury and penny enslin “promise of access and inclusion online education in africa” journal of philosophy of education, in special issues: engines of the interface:philosophical problems of online education. Edited by, migal blake and paul standdish(edit)-2000-vol 39.

Beck u (1999). what is globalisation? Cambridge polity press.

Castells, m (1996), information technology and global in w. Hutton and Anthony Glidden,(edit),on the edge, living with global capitalism, London vintage.

Fox j. p, (2001)”Chomsky and globalisation,” London icons book.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1    SUMMARY

The research work dealt into the context of globalization of ICT at local level with municipal local government as the case study. The work tried to bring out the major impact of ICT as a new development in globalization at local levels.

Chapter one dwelt into statement of research problem, aims and objectives, research questions, scope and limitations, and some operational definition of terms.

Chapter two dwelt into the review of related literature. Here the options of the past authors on related topics were sought and reviewed.

Chapter three, which is the operational map out of the research, work direct into the research design, the targeted population, and problems relating to the collection of Data.

Chapter four dwelt into analysis of the data collected from the respondents. Here a response analysis was made and made the finding from response(s) of the respondents was also discussed.

5.2.   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

From the findings in the research work, the following conclusion can be drawn:

The ICT has brought a lot of revolution in almost everything. The revolution in Information and Communication Technology has integrated and transformed the lives of the local people. Through ICT people are connected worldwide and thus can meet and interact anywhere any time and the local people .are hence inclusive in globalization.

For electronic learning (E-learning), the ICT produced a new form of international education emerging with many provisions of competition. Then From our findings it was evident that at local level students and researchers have discovered a new way of finding processing and sharing of knowledge and information. Students can apply and enroll into academic institution without even reaching there physically. Thus, the ICT allows for distant interaction, of students and researchers or teachers, hence making it easier for collaboration in an academic undertaking. This will allow for both students and researchers to come into contact with massive information to re-examine and appreciate their local issues in view of the international affairs. At local level it was evident that for all O’ levels examinations the protocols are been turn into online interaction. This has ease off the cumbersome nature of such exercise.

Therefore, since ITC requires certain level of knowledge, it is recommended that the Internet cafes engage into training programs on how to use the Internet efficiently to both literate and illiterate people.

The ICT has brought great change in the socio-economic being of the local people. Specifically the advent of GSM has created a new means of curving unemployment. Many people have become self-employed (question 2), and many are foreseeing a brighter future. For the business men the ICT (Especially the Internet) has provide a cheaper and faster means of conducting their business transaction without necessarily exposing themselves to much risk. Parties can meet online through visual communication and where products are involve they can equally be seen and assessed. Money and capital can move from one place to another, and transfers are conducted through electronic medium, such e banking, e-commerce, Tele-medicine etc. Although the there are not much people in business at the local level, but there are still evidences of electronic business in the study area.

It can also be suggested that organizations should reduce the speed at which they are making their tasks online, at least for some time, since majority of the people are not computer literate. Also they should encourage and support all sort of computer training in the society either financially or morally so as to speed up the rate of computer literacy. Government should give the largest support, thus, it is recommended that the local government should encourage such programs that will empower computer literacy in their areas.

Also, the ICT has become one major way of between employers and employees. People apply for a job and get interviewed online without physically getting there both locally and internationally. Therefore, all tertiary institutions should make it compulsory for their students, some level of computer literacy in their curriculum. This will increase their chances of getting employment easily after they leave school.

On the social realm the ICT has transformed our society to a greater degree. It is evident that majority of those who patronize Internet cafe and Call centers are sports fan and lovers/friends (Q. 4 of the questionnaire). From our findings the ICT has the capacity to threaten the moral values of the local people (Question 8 in the questionnaire). Underage children can have access to phonographic sites online, which tempers with their ability to control their sex psychology. Similarly, the GSM has become a means to boycott the moral restriction against male-female interaction.

Therefore, it is important-to the Internet cafes to discourage and ban access to such phonographic site. Parents should also Endeavour to limit rampant access to telephones (GSM) by their children. This will reduce their chances of being lured into the immoral side of the ICT.

Lastly, the research was conducted to expose the role and or   significance of the ICT as a consequence of globalization. ICT is indeed indispensable and we are just at the beginning of its globalization, however, we are coming up age and the danger it poses to the third world in general is’ that it is a furtherance of imperialism since it incorporate every beat of our live; our saying, our seeing, our inclination, our believes and values and even what we eat and drink is closely monitored by the owners of the ICT. Above ail the ICT is in self another wicked way of draining our little incomes by the owners, yet we cannot do without it. At this juncture, I will like to say that unless we are able to develop our independent technology there we cannot escape giving our money to them everyday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.      Ali A. Mazrui, (2003), “Nigeria Between Lord Lugard and the Digital

Divide: Political Culture and the Skill Revolution” in http://www/gooqle search, org/webworld/infoethics-2/eng/papers/paper

2.       Amin S. (1990), Mal-development Anatomy of Global Failure, Zed Press, London

3.       Anthony Lelliott, Shirley Pendlebury and Penny Enslin “Promise of Access and Inclusion: Online Education in Africa’, Journal of philosophy of Education”, in Special Issues: Engines of the Interface: philosophical problems of online education, Edited by: Migel Blake and Paul Standish, (Edit)-2000-Vol. 39

4.       Beck, U. (1999), What is Globalization?, Cambridge: Polity Press.

5.       Beck, U. (2001)’Living your life in a runaway world:

individualization, globalization and polities’, in W. Mutton and A. Giddens, (edit) On The Edge Living with global capitalism, … London: Vintage.

6.       Castells, M. (1996), The Rises of the Networked Society, Oxford: Blakcwell

7.       Castells, M. (2001), ‘Information technology and global’ in W. Mutton and Anthony Gidden, (edit), On The Edge. Living with global capitalism, London: Vintage.

8.       Cogburn, D. L. (1998) ‘Globalization, knowledge,’education and training in the global world’. Conference paper for the InfoEthichs 98 UNESCO. http://www/unesco.org/webworld/mfoethics-2/eng/papers/paper 23htm

9.       Fox J. P., (2001), Chomsky and Globalization,  London: Icon Books

10.     Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton,. J. (1999), (Edit) Global Transformations politics, economics and culture, Cambridge: Polity Press.

11.     HEIDEGGER, M., (1978), “The Question Concerning Technology“, in ed.  KRELL, (edit) Basic Writings London

12.     KALDOR, M., (1982).The Baroque Arsenal (Deutsch London)

13.    KROKER. A.. (1992) The Possessed Individual: technology and post modernity, (Macmillan London)

14.     Manuel Castells, (no date), Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development, pgs 8-11, Macmillan London

15.    Sukomal Sen, (undated), ‘Impact of Capitalist Globalization on the Working Class: The public and financial services’ www. google search ng.

16.     Y. Z. Ya’u (2002) “Globalization, ICT‘s and the New Imperialism: Perspective on Africa in the Global Electronic Village” (GEV), yunusaayau@hotmail.com, google search ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE

This questionnaire is designed for the collection of data on the topics, globalization of information and communication technology (ICT) at local level. A case study of municipal local. As part of fulfillment for the award of post graduate diploma in public policy and administration (PGDPPA).

 

   Your are therefore please, to answer the following question as honestly as possible. All information given to will be treated in strict confidence. As no name is required. Thank you for your cooperation.

Q.1 HOW LONG ARE YOU IN THIS BUSSINESS?

Q.2 WERE YOU INTO SIMILAR BUSINESS BEFORE?

Q.3 WHAT KIND OF CUSTOMERS DO YOU HAVE?

Q.4 ON THE AVERAGE HOW MANY CUSTOMERS DO YOU HAVE PER DAY?

Q 5 DO YOU THINK YOU ARE BETTER OFF WITH YOUR PRESENT BUSINESS NOW THAN BEFORE?

Q 6 DO YOU ALSO AGREE THAT ICT HAS INCREASE GAINFUL EMPLOYEMENT?

Q 7 DO YOU SEE ANY MORAL DANGER ASSCIATED WITH YOUR BUSINESS?

Q 8 DO YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM WITH CUSTOMERS?

Q 9 WHAT OTHER PROBLEM DO YOU ENCOUNTER?

Q 10 HOW CAN YOU ASSES THE ROLE OF TRANSFORMATION OF OUR SOCIETY FROM THE REVOLUTION IN ICT?

Q 11 WHICH CLASS OF YOUR CUSTOMERS SPENDS MORETIME ONLINE?

Q 12 IN GENERAL, WHAT DO YOU THINK CAN HINDER THE PROSPECT OF ICT AS A MEANS OF INTERACTION TODAY?

Q 13 WHAT DO YOU SEE ABOUT THE FUTURE OF ICT AND YOUR BUSINESS?


INDEX


CAFE, 38, 39, 41

CHAPTER, VIII, IX, X, 1, 17, 33, 38, 53

Communication, VII, 27, 29, 54

globalisation, 40, 50, 51, 52

ICT, I, VII, VIII, IX, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 16, 18, 19, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 63

information, V, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 17, 18, 19, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37, 38, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 62

KANO, I

local, VII, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 24, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 44, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 62

Question, 16, 57, 60

Technology, VII, 1, 16, 18, 27, 29, 54, 60


 

 

About these ads